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Learn the Uses of Direct and Indirect Speech in Hindi

Behtar English seekhne ke liye English ke basic rules aana bahut zaruri hai. Lekin English ke ye basic rules seekhna aasan nahi hai, iske liye apko bahut saare basic rules aur concepts ko detail mein samajhna hoga. Inn basic rules mein se ek hai Direct Speech and Indirect Speech. English grammar mein ye topic thoda complex maana jaat hai lekin iss article mein Direct Speech and Indirect Speech ke concept ko bahut hi simple and easy way mein bataya gaya hai, jahan aap easily direct and indirect speech ke concepts ko seekh sakte hain. 

What is Direct Speech? 

When the words spoken by the person are quoted as it is, it is known as direct speech. In direct speech, the words spoken by the speaker are quoted in double inverted commas (“_ _ _ _”).

जब किसी व्यक्ति द्वारा बोले गए शब्दों को जैसा है वैसा ही quote किया जाता है, उसे direct speech कहते हैं। Direct speech में, स्पीकर द्वारा बोले गए शब्दों को double inverted commas (“_ _ _ _”) में quote किया जाता है।

Example

Anahita said to me, “I am going to the office.”

He said, “I am not lying about my marks.”

Here the speaker is ‘Anahita’ and ‘he’, and their speeches are quoted in double inverted commas (“_ _ _ _”).

यहाँ स्पीकर ‘Anahita’ और ‘he’ है, और उनके शब्दों को double inverted commas (“_ _ _ _”) में quote किया गया है।

     Parts of direct speech (English + Hindi)

      Direct speech is divided into two parts,

      Direct speech के दो parts होते हैं:

  • Reporting Speech
  • Reported Speech

Reporting Speech– The part of the sentence coming outside the double inverted commas is called reporting speech. Double inverted commas के बाहर आने वाले part of speech को reporting speech कहा जाता ह In the example given above, ‘Anahita said to me’ and ‘he said’ are the reporting speech in the sentence. On the other hand, the reporting speech has three parts, reporter, reporting verb, and the object of the reporter. In the first example, ‘Anahita’ is the reporter, ‘said to’ is the reporting verb, and ‘me’ is the object of the reporter. 

       ऊपर दिए गए उदाहरण में, ‘Anahita said to me’ और ‘he said’ reporting speech हैं। दूसरी ओर reporting speech के तीन parts होते हैं, reporter, reporting verb, और object of the reporter. पहले उदाहरण में, ‘Anahita’ रिपोर्टर है, ‘said to’ is reporting verb है, और ‘me’ object of the reporter है।

What is Indirect Speech? 

When the message of the speaker is not quoted as it is and is said in our own words, it is called indirect speech. Here the double inverted commas (“_ _ _ _”) are replaced by ‘that’ in the sentence.

जब speaker के message को उसी रूप में quote नहीं किया जाता है जैसा वह है और उषे अपने शब्दों में कहा जाता है, तो इसे indirect speech कहते हैं। यहां वाक्य में double inverted commas (“_ _ _ _”) को  ‘that’ से बदल दिया जाता है।

Example: Anahita told me that she was going to the office.

                He said that he was not lying about his marks.

Change in the Reporting Verb 

While changing a sentence from direct speech to indirect speech, reporting verb in the sentence also gets changed as follows:

किसी भी वाक्य को Direct speech से indirect speech में बदलते समय, वाक्य में reporting verb भी बदल जाती है, जैसे:

 

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Said to Told
Says to Tells 
Say to Tell

Rules for Changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech

Given below are the different rules for changing direct speech into indirect speech:

किसी भी वाक्य को Direct speech से indirect speech में बदलने के लिये यहां कुछ नियम दिए गए हैं।  

1. Change in Pronouns 

Given in the table below are the rules for change in pronouns while changing direct speech into indirect speech:

Direct speech को indirect speech में बदलते समय pronouns में changes के नियम नीचे दी गई table में दिए गए हैं:

 

Rule Examples
If a first-person pronoun is used in the reported speech, then it is changed according to the subject of the reporting speech.

अगर reported speech में first person pronoun का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है, तो इसे reporting speech के subject के अनुसार बदल दिया जाता है।

  1. Ariana said, “I am buying a car.” (Direct Speech)

Ariana said that she was buying a car. (Indirect Speech)

  1. Rohan said to Akash, “I am going to play football. (Direct Speech)

Rohan told Akash that he was going to play football. (Indirect Speech)

If the second person pronoun is used in the reported speech, then it is changed according to the subject in the reporting speech.

अगर reported speech में second person pronoun का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है, तो इसे reporting speech के subject के अनुसार बदल दिया जाता है।

  1. Akash said to me, “You are doing a great job.” (Direct Speech)

Akash told me that I was doing a great job. (Indirect Speech)

  1. Ahana says to me, “You should play.” (Direct Speech)

Ahana told me that I should play. (Indirect Speech)

If a third-person pronoun is used in the reported speech, there will not be any change.

अगर reported speech में third person pronoun का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है, तो कोई बदलाव नहीं होगा।

  1. My father said, “He is going for a meeting.” (Direct Speech)

My father said that he was going to a meeting. (Indirect Speech)

  1. My sister said, “She is looking for a beautiful dress.” (Direct Speech)

My sister said that she was looking for a beautiful dress. (Indirect Speech)

If the object of the reporting speech is not given, the subject of the reported speech is second person, and the subject reporting verb of the reporting speech is first person, then in indirect speech, the second person of the reported speech is changed into the third person subject.

अगर reporting speech का object नहीं दिया गया है, reported speech का subject second person pronoun है, और reporting verb का subject   first person pronoun है, तो indirect speech में reported speech के second person pronoun को third person pronoun में बदल दिया जाता है। 

  1. I said, “You are a bright student.” (Direct Speech)

I told him that he was a bright student. (Indirect Speech)

I told her that she was a bright student. (Indirect Speech)

  1. I said, “You are an excellent dancer.” (Direct Speech)

I told him that he was an excellent dancer. (Indirect Speech)

I told him that she was an excellent dancer. (Indirect Speech)

2. Change of Modal and Helping Verbs

Given in the list below are the direct to indirect changes in the helping verb and auxiliary verb:

Direct speech को indirect speech में बदलते समय helping verb और auxiliary verb में हुए changes नीचे दी गई table में दिए गए हैं:

Direct Speech Indirect Speech

Examples

Was/ were Had been
  1. John said, “I was calling you.” (Direct Speech)

John said that he had been calling me. (Indirect Speech)

  1. Ayaan said, “My friends were planning a trip to Europe.” (Direct Speech)

Ayaan said that his friends had been planning a trip to Europe. (Indirect Speech)

Is/ am was
  1. My mother said, “I am going to the market.” (Direct Speech)

My mother said that she was going to the market. (Indirect Speech)

  1. Ayesha said, “my mother is making idli.” (Direct Speech)

Ayesha said that her mother was making idli. (Indirect Speech)

Are were
  1. Aryan told me, “we are playing cricket.” (Direct Speech)

Aryan told me that they were playing cricket. (Indirect Speech)

  1. My father said, “we are going for a family vacation.” (Direct Speech)

My father said that we were going for a family vacation. (Indirect Speech)

Do/ does did
  1. Rahul said, “I do not want black shoes.” (Direct Speech)

Rahul said that he did not want black shoes. (Indirect Speech)

  1. Anjali said, “my sister does not eat chocolates.” (Direct Speech)

Anjali said that her sister did not eat chocolates. (Indirect Speech)

Has/ Have had
  1. He said, “my friend has a blue jacket.” (Direct Speech)

He said that his friend had a blue jacket. (Indirect Speech)

  1. Vivek said, “they have gone to watch the play.” (Direct Speech)

Vivek said that they had gone to watch the play. (Indirect Speech)

Has to/ Have to Had to
  1. Shivam said, “Akash has to attend the meeting.” (Direct Speech)

Sivam told that Akash had to attend the meeting. (Indirect Speech)

  1. Naina said, “I have to go to the party.” (Direct Speech)

Naina said that she had to go to the party. (Indirect Speech)

Can could
  1. Riya told me, “I can twist my tongue.” (Direct Speech)

Riya told me that she could twist her tongue. (Indirect Speech)

  1. Ayaan said, “I can drive a car.” (Direct Speech)

Ayaan said that he could drive a car. (Indirect Speech)

May might
  1. Akash said, “You may take a rest.” (Direct Speech)

Akash said that I might take a rest. (Indirect Speech)

  1. Aryan said, “My mother may come for the annual day.” (Direct Speech)

Aryan said that his mother might come for the annual day. (Indirect Speech)

 

Note: If the reporting verb is in past tense and should, would, could, and might are used in the reported speech, then in the indirect speech, should, would, could, and might are not changed and kept exactly as it is. 

अगर reporting verb past tense में है और reported speech में should, would, could, और might का इस्तेमाल हो रहा है, तो indirect speech में, should, would, could, और might में कोई बदलाव नहीं आएगा। 

Example: The Mother said, “Rehan should attend school daily.” (Direct Speech)

                The mother said that Rehan should attend school daily. (Indirect Speech)

                Anjali said to me, “I might go shopping.” (Direct Speech)

                Anjali told me that she might go shopping. (Indirect Speech)

3. Change of Other Parts of Speech 

Besides the changes in the pronouns, auxiliary verbs, and modal auxiliary verbs, other parts of the sentence also get changed in indirect speech. The table given below contains the direct to indirect changes of different parts of the sentence:

Pronouns, helping verbs, and modal auxiliary verbs, में changes के अलावा, other parts of the speech भी indirect speech में बदल जाते हैं। नीचे दी गई table में other parts of the speech के direct speech से indirect speech में हुए changes दिए गए हैं:

Direct Speech Indirect Speech

Examples

Here There Raja said, “I will call him here.” (Direct Speech)

Raja said that he will call him there. (Indirect Speech)

Now Then Akhil said, “you should come to my office now.” (Direct Speech)

Akhil said that I should come to his office then. (Indirect Speech)

This That Rani said, “this is my dream place.” (Direct Speech)

Rani said that that was her dream place. (Indirect Speech)

These Those Akash said, “These books are very expensive.” (Direct Speech)

Akash said that those books were very expensive. (Indirect Speech)

Thus So Anjali says to me, “It’s already late, so you should go home.” (Direct Speech)

Anjali tells me that it’s already late, so I should go home.

Hence  Thence  Ishita said, “we have to leave on Monday, hence 2 days left for packing.” (Direct Speech)

Ishita said that they had to leave on Monday, then 2 days left for packing. (Indirect Speech)

Yesterday The previous day

The day before

Akhil said to me, “I saw you on the street yesterday.”

Akhil told me that he saw me on the street the previous day. (Indirect Speech)

Today That day Jhanvi said, “I am throwing a party today.” (Direct Speech)

Jhanvi said that she was throwing a party that day. (Indirect Speech)

Tomorrow The next day

On the morrow

The following day

Pratik said, “I am leaving for Mumbai tomorrow.” (Direct Speech)

Pratik said that he was leaving for Mumbai the next day. (Indirect Speech)

This day That day Shivam says to me, “This day is special for me.” (Direct Speech)

Shivam tells me that that day was special for him. (Indirect Speech)

Tonight That night Anup said, “we should study together tonight.” (Direct Speech)

Anup said that we should study together that night. (Indirect Speech)

The day after tomorrow In two days time Aryan said to me, “I am having my flight the day after tomorrow.” (Direct Speech)

Aryan told me that he was having his flight in two days. (Indirect Speech)

Next day The following day Shrishti said, “I am having my math exam tomorrow.” (Direct Speech)

Shrishti said that she was having her math exam the following day. (Indirect Speech)

Next night The following night Rachael said, “I am meeting his parents for dinner next night.” (Direct Speech)

Rachael said that she was meeting his parents for dinner the following night. (Indirect Speech)

Next week  The following week Aryan said, “I will attend the photography workshop next week.” (Direct Speech)

Aryan said that he will attend the photography workshop the following week. (Indirect Speech)

Next month The following month Ayaan told me, “My sister is getting married next month.” (Direct Speech)

Ayaan told me that his sister was getting married the following month.

Next year The following year Ayesha said, “I am moving to Bangalore next year.” (Direct Speech)

Ayesha said that she was moving to Bangalore the following year. (Indirect Speech)

Last day The previous day

The day before

Arun said, “It was fun last day.” (Direct Speech)

Arun said that it was fun the previous day.  (Indirect Speech)

Last night The previous night

The night before

Ankit said, “I went to a party last night.” (Direct Speech)

Ankit said that he went to a party the previous night. (Indirect Speech)

Last week The previous week

The week before

Ahana said, “I was at my aunt’s house last week.” (Direct Speech)

Ahana said she was at her aunt’s house last week. (Indirect Speech)

Last month The previous month

The month before

Shikha said, “I had a job interview last month.” (Direct Speech)

Shikha said that she had a job interview the previous month. (Indirect Speech)

Last year The previous year

The year before

My father said, “we had organized a Diwali party last year.” (Direct Speech)

My father said that we had organized a Diwali party the previous year. (Indirect Speech)

Come Go Nikhil said, “I asked him to come here.” (Direct Speech)

Nikhil said he asked him to come there. (Indirect Speech)

A year ago A year before Harshit said, “my friend used to work here a year ago.” (Direct Speech)

Harshit said that his friend used to work there a year before. (Indirect Speech)

4. Change of Tenses 

While changing any sentence from direct speech to indirect speech, the tense of the speech also gets changed. Given below are the different rules for changing tenses:

किसी भी वाक्य को direct speech से indirect speech में बदलते समय, speech का tense भी बदल जाता है। tense बदलने के नियम नीचे दिए गए हैं:

Rule 1

If the tense of the verb in the reporting speech is in present or future tense, then in the indirect speech the tense of the verb in the reported speech is not changed. 

अगर reporting speech में verb का tense present या future है, तो indirect speech में reported speech में verb का tense नहीं बदला जाता है।

Example: He says, “It is going to rain heavily.” (Direct Speech)

                He says that it is going to rain heavily. (Indirect Speech)

                Vivek says, “I am working on this project now.” (Direct Speech)

                Vivek says that he is working on that project then. (Indirect Speech)

Rule 2

If the verb of the reporting speech is in the past tense, then in the indirect speech, the tense of the verb in the reported speech is changed according to the following basis:

अगर reporting speech में verb past tense में है, तो indirect speech में, reported speech में verb का tense निम्नलिखित नियम के अनुसार बदल जाता है:

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

 Examples

Past Indefinite Tense Past Perfect Tense She said, “Ananya went to school.” (Direct Speech)

She said that Ananya had gone to school. (Indirect Speech)

Past Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense He said, “Sanju was going for a wedding party.” (Direct Speech)

He said that Sanju had been going to a wedding party. (Indirect Speech)

Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense He said, “Aftab had called his best friend.” (Direct Speech)

He said that Aftab had called his best friend. (Indirect Speech)

Past Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense Elena said, “she had been calling me for three days.” (Direct Speech)

Elena said that she had been calling her for three days. (Indirect Speech)

Present Indefinite Tense Past Indefinite Tense Harshit said, “I eat an ice cream.” (Direct Speech)

Harshit said that he ate ice cream. (Indirect Speech)

Present  Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense Asha said, “I am going to my father’s house.” (Direct Speech)

Asha said that she was going to her father’s house. (Indirect Speech)

Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense Aman said, “Anjali has completed her project work.” (Direct Speech)

Aman said that Anjali had completed her project work. (Indirect Speech)

Present Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense Asad said, “I have been writing this blog for two days.” (Direct Speech)

Asad said that he had been writing that blog for two days. (Indirect Speech)

Rule 3

If the reporting speech is in the past tense, and the reported speech is in the future tense, then the direct to indirect change takes place according to the following:

अगर reporting speech past tense में है, और reported speech future tense में है, तो direct speech से indirect speech में बदलाव निम्नलिखित नियम के अनुसार होता है:

Direct Speech Indirect Speech

Examples

Will Would  Gauri said, “My father will drop me.” (Direct Speech)

Gauri said that her father would drop her. (Indirect Speech)

Shall Should Amara says, “I shall go shopping.” (Direct Speech)

Amara tells that she should go shopping. (Indirect Speech)

Will be Would be Asif said, “This will be my last day in office.” (Direct Speech)

Asif said that that would be her last day in the office. (Indirect Speech)

Shall be Should be Aditya said, “I shall be visiting my aunt.” (Direct Speech)

Aditya said that he should be visiting his aunt. (Indirect Speech)

Will have Would have Ahana said, “She will have gone by now.” (Direct Speech)

Ahana said that she would have gone by then. (Indirect Speech)

Shall have  Should have Ayaan said, “I shall have used my skills.” (Direct Speech)

Ayaan said that he should have used his skills. (Indirect Speech)

Will have been Would have been My mother said, “we will have been going to a party.” (Direct Speech)

My mother said that we would have been going to a party. (Indirect Speech)

Shall have been Should have been My friend said, “I shall have been the best salesman in my organization.” (Direct Speech)

My friend said that she should have been the best salesman in his organization. (Indirect Speech)

Rule 4

If the reported speech is talking about a fact, universal truth, proverb, historical truth, and habit, then in the indirect speech, the tense of the reported speech is not changed.

अगर reported speech एक universal truth, proverb, historical truth, और habit के बारे में बात कर रहा है, तो indirect speech में, reported speech का tense नहीं बदला जाता है।

Facts He said, “My brother doesn’t like to wear a tie.” He said his brother doesn’t like to wear a tie.
Habit My father said, “I go for a walk every day.” My father said that he goes for a walk every day.
Proverb My mother says, “all that glitters is not gold.” My mother says that all that glitters is not gold.
Universal Truth My teacher said, “the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.” My teacher said that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
Historical Truth The history teacher said, “Taj Mahal was built by Shah Jahan.” The history teacher told us that the Taj Mahal was built by Shah Jahan.

Rule 5

If in the reported speech two actions are being performed simultaneously in simple past tense and the time clause is also used in it, then in indirect speech, no changes are being made to simple past tense and past continuous tense.

Reported speech में अगर एक साथ दो काम simple past tense में किये जा रहे हैं, और उसमें time clause  का भी इस्तेमाल किया गया है, तो indirect speech में, तो simple past tense और past continuous tense में कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है।

Example: She said, “when I called you in the evening, you were making dinner.” (Direct Speech)

                She said that when she called me in the evening, I was making dinner. (Indirect Speech)

                Akhil said, “when I saw you, you were painting scenery.” (Direct Speech)

                Akhil said that when he saw me, I was painting scenery. (Indirect Speech)

 

Change of sentences: Assertive, Imperative, Interrogative, Exclamatory, and Optative Sentences 

For Assertive Sentences

While changing an assertive sentence from direct speech to indirect speech, the basic rules mentioned above in the article are followed.

एक assertive sentence को direct speech से indirect speech में बदलते समय, ऊपर दिए गए सभी बुनियादी नियमों का पालन किया जाता है।

Example: Reena says, “I am not going to the parlor.” (Direct Speech)

                Reena tells that she is not going to the parlor. (Indirect Speech)

                Arhan said, “We have been waiting for you.” (Direct Speech)

                Arhan said that they had been waiting for me. (Indirect Speech)

For Interrogative Sentence

Interrogative sentences are those sentences that intend to ask questions. Given below are the rules for changing an interrogative sentence from direct to indirect speech:

Interrogative sentences वे वाक्य होते हैं जिनका इस्तेमाल सवाल पूछने के लिए किया जाता है। Interrogative sentences को direct speech से indirect speech में बदलने के नियम नीचे दिए गए हैं:

Rule 1

For Yes or No type of questions

When the interrogative sentence in the reported speech starts with a helping verb, then in such sentences the double inverted commas are replaced with ‘if’ or ‘whether’. Other than that following changes in the reporting verb are also made:

जब reported speech में interrogative sentence एक helping verb से शुरू होता है, तो ऐसे वाक्यों में double inverted commas को ‘if’ या ‘whether’ से बदल दिया जाता है। इसके अलावा reporting verb में निम्नलिखित बदलाव भी किए जाते हैं:

 

Reporting verb in Direct speech

Reporting verb in the Indirect speech

Examples

say/ say to ask/ enquire/ demand/ want to know They say, “Do you know about the professor?” (Direct Speech)

They enquire if he/ she knew about the professor. (Indirect Speech)

says/ says to asks/ enquiries/ demands/ wants to know Anjali says to me, “are you going to college?” (Direct Speech)

Anjali asked me whether I was going to college. (Indirect Speech)

said/ said to asked/ enquired/ demanded/ wanted to know My father said, “Are you going on a college trip?” (Direct Speech)

My father asked whether I was going on a college trip. (Indirect Speech) 

Rule 2

For WH- word questions

While changing from direct to indirect speech, the W-H type of interrogative sentence gets changed into an assertive sentence. Also, the double inverted commas are not replaced by whether, if, or that, but the W-H word of the interrogative sentence is used instead of them. 

Direct speech से indirect speech में बदलते समय, W-H type के  interrogative sentence एक assertive sentence में बदल जाते हैं। साथ ही, double inverted commas को whether, if, या that से बदला नहीं जाता है, लेकिन उसकी जगह पर  interrogative sentence के W-H शब्दों का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है।

Examples: Rani said to me, “Why did you not answer my call?” (Direct Speech)

                  Rani asked me why I had not answered her call. (Indirect Speech) 

                  Armaan said to Akash, “Where is your elder brother?” (Direct Speech)

                  Armaan asked Akash where was his elder brother. (Indirect Speech) 

For Optative Sentence

Optative sentences are those sentences that express the feelings of wish, curse, prayer, and blessing. Given below are the rules for changing optative sentences from direct to indirect speech.

Optative sentences वे वाक्य होते हैं जो इच्छा, शाप, प्रार्थना और आशीर्वाद की भावनाओं को व्यक्त करते हैं। Direct speech से indirect speech में optative sentences को बदलने के नियम नीचे दिए गए हैं।

Rule 

On the basis of the emotion and tense, the reporting verb is changed into pray/ prays/ prayed, curse/ curses/ cursed, wish/ wishes/ wished, bless/ blesses/ blessed. The optative sentence is changed into an assertive sentence in indirect speech.

Emotion और tense के आधार पर, reporting verb को pray/ prays/ prayed, curse/ curses/ cursed, wish/ wishes/ wished, bless/ blesses / blessed में बदल दिया जाता है। Indirect speech में, optative sentences को assertive sentence में बदल दिया जाता है।

Direct Speech Example

Indirect Speech Example

Prayer (प्रार्थना) Mr. Sharma said, “May God give you a healthy life.” Mr. Sharma said that God might give me a healthy life.
Blessing (आशीर्वाद) My aunt said to me, “may you achieve heights in life.” My aunt blessed me that I might achieve heights in life.
Wish (इच्छा) My father said, “All the best for your painting competition.” My father wished me all the best for my painting competition.
Curse (अभिशाप) The victims said, “the terrorists must be hanged till death.” The victims cursed that the terrorists must be hanged till death. 

For Exclamatory Sentence

Exclamatory sentences are those sentences that express the feeling of joy, happiness, anger, regret, contempt, surprise, sorrow, applause, etc.

Exclamatory sentences वे वाक्य होते हैं जो खुशी, क्रोध, खेद, अपमान, आश्चर्य, दुख, तालियां आदि की भावना व्यक्त करते हैं।

While changing direct speech into indirect speech for exclamatory sentences, the interjections are removed and the exclamatory sentence is changed into assertive sentences. Below are the rules for changing exclamatory sentences from direct speech to indirect speech. 

Exclamatory sentences  को  direct speech से indirect speech में बदलते समय, interjections को हटा दिया जाता है और Exclamatory sentences को assertive sentences में बदल दिया जाता है। Exclamatory sentences को direct speech से indirect speech में बदलने के नियम नीचे दिए गए हैं:

Emotions

Changed Form

Examples

Joy/ Happiness (खुशी) Exclaimed with joy My friend said, “See how happy I am.” (Direct Speech)

My friend exclaimed with joy that he was very happy. (Indirect Speech)

Surprise (आश्चर्य) Exclaimed with surprise My mother said, “How did you manage to come on my birthday?” (Direct Speech)

My mother exclaimed with surprise that how I managed to come on her birthday. (Indirect Speech)

Applause (वाहवाही) Exclaimed with applause My father said, “Bravo! You win the match.” (Direct Speech)

My father exclaimed with applause that I won the match. (Indirect Speech)

Sorrow (दुख) Exclaimed with sorrow The businessman said, “Alas! I am bankrupt.” (Direct Speech)

The businessman exclaimed with sorrow that he was bankrupt. (Indirect Speech)

Anger (गुस्सा) Exclaimed with anger My sister said, “Get out of my room.” (Direct Speech)

My sister exclaimed with anger that I should get out of her room. (Indirect Speech)

Regret (पछतावा) Exclaimed with regret Ayaan said, “Oh! He was punished because of me.” (Direct Speech)

Ayaan exclaimed with regret that he was punished because of him. (Indirect Speech)

Contempt (अपमान ) Exclaimed with contempt Akash said, “See how ugly she looks.” (Direct Speech)

Akash exclaimed with contempt that she looked ugly. (Indirect Speech)

For Imperative Sentence

Imperative Sentences are those sentences that express the feeling of request, order, command, etc. Given below are the rules for changing imperative sentences from direct speech to indirect speech. If the imperative sentence in the indirect speech starts with the first form of the verb, then the following rules are followed:

Imperative Sentences वे वाक्य होते हैं जो अनुरोध, आदेश, आदि की भावना को व्यक्त करते हैं। Imperative Sentences को direct speech से indirect speech में  बदलने के नियम नीचे दिए गए हैं। अगर indirect speech में य imperative sentence verb की first form से शुरू होता है, तो निम्नलिखित नियमों का पालन किया जाता है:

  • The comma is replaced by to in the indirect speech. Indirect speech में comma की जगह to लगता है। 
  • Even if the object is not given in the reporting speech, always use the object after the reporting verb in the indirect speech. Reporting speech में भले ही object न दिया गया हो, लेकिन indirect speech में reporting verb के बाद हमेशा object का इस्तेमाल करें।
  • In the indirect speech, sir, madam, kindly, and please are removed, and instead request/ requests/ requested are used as reporting verbs in the sentence. Indirect speech में sir, madam, kindly, और please को हटाकर उसकी जगह request/ requests/ requested को reporting verb की तरह इस्तेमाल किया जाता है। 
  • If the object is used after the reporting verb, and then respectfully is used instead of sir, or madam after the object.  अगर reporting verb के बाद object आता है तो object के बाद sir या madam की जगह respectfully का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है। 
  • The reporting verbs are changed according to the table given below: Reporting verb को नीचे दी गयी टेबल के आधार पर बदला जाता है। 

Reporting verb

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Request/ requests/ requested Pankaj said to the boss, “Sir, please grant me   two days’ leave.” Pankaj requested the boss respectfully to grant him two days’ leave. 
order/ orders/ ordered Father said to me, “Bring your result.” Father ordered me to bring my result.
warn/ warns/ warned Anjali said to him, “Stay away from the fridge.” Anjali warned him to stay away from the fridge
advise/ advises/ advised My mother said, “Always speak the truth.” My mother advised me to always speak the truth. 
suggest/ suggests/ suggested My brother said to me, “Start studying for the exam.” My brother suggested me to start studying for the exam. 
Command/ commands/ commanded  My boss said, “Do this project.” My boss commanded me to do that project.

Use of Forbid/ Forbids/ Forbade

Imperative Sentences starting with do not or don’t are changed into indirect speech using forbid/ forbids/ forbade. Here in indirect speech, to is used instead of do not in the sentences. 

Imperative Sentences जो do not या don’t से शुरू होते हैं, उन्हें indirect speech में बदलने के लिए forbid/ forbids/ forbade को reporting verb की तरह इस्तेमाल किया जाता है। Indirect speech में do not की जगह to का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है। 

Example: My mother said to me, “Don’t go outside.” (Direct Speech)

                My mother forbade me to go outside. (Indirect Speech)

                She said to me, “Don’t touch the flower.” (Direct Speech)

                She forbade me to touch the flower. (Indirect Speech)

‘Let’ Sentences in Indirect Speech 

Sentences starting with let can have three connotations namely, desire or wish, suggestion or proposal, and permission. Given below are the direct to indirect changes of different connotations of let sentences.

Let से शुरू होने वाले वाक्यों के तीन अर्थ हो सकते हैं, इच्छा, सुझाव या प्रस्ताव और अनुमति। नीचे let sentences के अलग अलग अर्थों को indirect speech में बदलने के examples दिए गए हैं। 

Connotation

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Wish/ desire Akash said, “Let me go to the gym.”

Ayaan said, “Let me buy these black shoes.”

Akash wished that he should go to the gym.

Ayaan said that he should buy those black shoes.

Proposal/ suggestion My friend said, “let us go to a movie.”

She said, “let us buy some food for the needy.”

My friend proposed that we should go to a movie.

She suggested that we should buy some food for the needy.

Permission Ayesha said to her mother, “let me go to the party.”

Arjun said to me, “let me complete my assignment first.”

Ayesha asked her mother to allow her to go to the party.

Arjun requested me to let him complete his assignment first.

Try and Learn

Do this exercise and check your progress on what you have learned so far. Convert the Direct speech given below into Indirect speech.

  1. Anjali said, “We should go for a walk together.”
  2. Masood told me, “we are planning for a vacation abroad.”
  3. Krish said to his mother, “Let me go to my friend’s birthday party.”
  4. My friend said, “Are you working with my brother?”
  5. He said to Virat, “Sir, please give me your autograph.”
  6. My mother said, “Bravo! You won the dance competition.”
  7. Ahana said, “I have been calling Rudra since morning.”
  8. She said, “Where is my school bag?”
  9. My mother said, “All the best for your exams.”
  10. Aftab said, “Let me go to the office.”

Answers

  1. Anjali said that they should go for a walk together.
  2. Masood told me that they were planning for a vacation abroad.
  3. Krish asked his mother to allow him to go to his friend’s birthday party.
  4. My friend asked if I am working with my brother.
  5. He requested Virat respectfully to grant him his autograph.
  6. My mother exclaimed with applause that I won the dance competition.
  7. Ahana said that she had been calling Rudra since morning.
  8. She asked where was her school bag.
  9. My mother wished me all the best for my exams.
  10. Aftab wished to go to the office. 

Agar aap aur bhi ese complex concepts ko easily hindi mein samajhna chahte hain, toh join karein Awal sir ka Spoken English course, jahan aap English grammar ke mushkil concepts ko aasani se English mein seekh sakte hain.

 

 

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