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Easily Learn Active and Passive Voice in English Grammar in Hindi

English grammar seekhne ke liye apko verb ki voice ke baare mein jaanna important hai. Verb ki voice, action aur uss action ko perform karne wale ke relationship ko represent karti hai. Voice do types ki hoti hai, active voice and passive voice. Sentence frame karne ke liye active voice and passive voice ki knowledge hona jaruri hai, kyunki tabhi aap sahi sentence bana payenge, aur dono ke beech ke antar ko samajh payenge. Iss blog mein active voice and passive voice ke baare mein bataya gaya hai, aur kuch rules bhi discuss kiye gaye hain, jinki help se aap sentences ko active voice se passive voice mein aasani se badal payenge.

What is Active Voice and Passive Voice?- Learn the Difference

When the action is performed by the subject in a sentence, and the main focus is on the subject doing the action, then it is called active voice. The syntax of the active voice is:

Subject + verb + object.

Example: Ram buys mangoes.

Here the the main focus is on the subject ‘Ram’ who performs an action of ‘buying mangoes’, this is called active voice.

यहाँ main focus subject ‘राम’  par hail jo ‘खरीदने’ का काम करता है, इसे active voice कहा जाता है।

However, in a sentence, if the action is performed by a subject, and more importance is given to the action in a sentence, then it is called passive voice. The syntax of the passive voice is:

Object + verb + by + Subject.

Here ‘by’ is used before the subject

यहाँ subject से पहले ‘by’ का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है।

Example: Mangoes are bought by Ram.

Here the object ‘mangoes’ are being ‘bought’ (action) by the subject ‘Ram’.

यहाँ object ‘आम’ को ‘राम’ subject द्वारा ‘खरीदा’ जा रहा है।

Rules to Convert Active Voice into Passive Voice

To convert sentences from active voice to passive voice, there are certain rules that must be followed. These rules are discussed below with examples:

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में बदलने के लिए कुछ नियमों पर ध्यान रखना जरुरी है.  यहाँ हम sentence को active voice से passive voice में बदलने के नियमों के बारे में बात करेंगे.

Rule No. 1

To convert a sentence from active voice to passive voice, the most basic rule is to replace subject with object and object with the subject.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में बदलने के लिए, सबसे बुनियादी नियम subject को object के साथ और object को सूबजेक्ट के साथ बदल देना है।

Example: Riya paints beautiful scenery. (Active Voice)

The beautiful scenery is painted by Riya. (Passive Voice)

He plays cricket. (Active Voice)

Cricket is played by him. (Passive Voice)

Rule No. 2

To convert a sentence from active voice to passive voice, ‘by’ is used before the subject.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में बदलने के लिए, subject से पहले ‘by’ का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है।

Example: Ajay is eating an apple. (Active Voice)

An apple is being eaten by Ajay. (Passive Voice)

They are planning an event. (Active Voice)

An event is being planned for by them. (Passive Voice)

Rule No. 3

To convert a sentence from active voice to passive voice, the third form of the main verb is used.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice  में बदलने के लिए, main verb की third फॉर्म का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है।

Example: Ahaan breaks the glass. (Active Voice)

The glass is broken by Ahaan. (Passive Voice)

Jaya buys a pink dress. (Active Voice)

A pink dress is bought by Jaya. (Passive Voice)

Rule No. 4

To convert a sentence from active voice to passive voice, it is not always necessary to use ‘by’ before the subject, ‘to’, ‘at’, and ‘with’ can also be used in the sentence.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में बदलने के लिए, subject से पहले हमेशा ‘by’ का इस्तेमाल करना ज़रूरी नहीं है, sentence में ‘to’, ‘at’, and ‘with’ का भी इस्तेमाल किया जा सकता है।

Example: Juice fills the bottle. (Active Voice)

The bottle is filled with juice. (Passive Voice)

Ayesha knows her. (Active Voice)

She is known to Ayesha. (Passive Voice)

Rule No. 5

When an object is not given in a sentence, the active voice can be converted to a passive voice in the following manner.

जब किसी sentences में object नहीं दिया जाता है, तो active voice को निम्नलिखित तरीके से passive voice में बदला जा सकता है।

Example: Ravi goes. (Active Voice)

Ravi is gone. (Passive Voice)

The game begins. (Active Voice)

The game has begun. (Passive Voice)

Rule No. 6

It is not always important to use the subject in the passive voice. If a sentence conveys the full meaning without a subject, then the subject is dropped in such sentences.

Passive voice में subject का हमेशा इस्तेमाल करना ज़रूरी नहीं होता है। अगर कोई sentence बिना subject के पूरा मतलब बताता है, तो ऐसे sentences में subject को छोड़ दिया जाता है।

Example: Gold is sold in kilograms. (Passive Voice)

Transgender is not always treated as equals. (Passive Voice)

Rule No. 7.

While changing a sentence from active voice to passive voice, the adjective, adjective phrases and articles used with the subject and the object are replaced with them.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में बदलते समय, subject और object  के साथ इस्तेमाल किए जाने वाले adjective, adjective phrases and articles  को भी उनके साथ बदल दिया जाता है।

Example: Karan buys a black shirt. (Active Voice)

A black shirt is bought by Karan . (Passive Voice)

Ajay uses a blue pen. (Active Voice)

Blue pen is used by Ajay. (Passive Voice)

Rule No. 8

While changing a sentence from active voice to passive voice, if both direct and indirect objects are given, then indirect object is used in place of subject.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में बदलते समय, अगर direct और indirect object दोनों दिए गए  हैं, तो subject की जगह पर indirect object का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है।

Example: She teaches me dancing. (Active Voice)

I was taught dancing by her. (Passive Voice)

They invited you to a party. (Active Voice)

You are invited to a party by them. (Passive Voice)

Table for Changing Helping Verbs from Active Voice to Passive voice

While changing a sentence from active voice to passive voice, the helping verbs also get changed. Given in the table below helping verbs for active voice and passive voice.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में बदलते समय,  helping verb भी बदल जाती है। active voice से passive voice में बदलने के लिए helping verbs के बारे में नीचे table में दिया गया है।

Table for Modals- Active Voice into Passive Voice

While changing any sentence from active to passive voice, modals are also changed. ‘Be’ is added with modal auxiliary verbs to change it into passive voice. The table given below shows the change in these verbs.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में बदलते समय, modals को भी बदल दिया जाता है। इसलिए passive voice में बदलने के लिए modals के साथ ‘be’ जोड़ा जाता है। नीचे दी गई table में इन verbs  में हुए बदलाव के बारे में बताया गया है।

Modals in Active Voice Modals in Passive Voice
Is to, Are to, Am to Is to be, Are to be, Am to be
Has to, Have to Has to be, Have to be
Will have to, Shall have to Will have to be, Shall have to be
Was to, Were to Was to be, Were to be
Had to Had to be
Should Should be
Would Would be
Must Must be
May May be
Might Might be
Can Can be
Could Could be

To change modal sentences from active voice to passive voice, there are three rules discussed below:

Modal Sentences को active voice से passive voice में बदलने के लिए, नीचे तीन नियमों पर चर्चा की गई है: 

active passive voice

Table for Converting Pronouns into Passive Voice

For converting a sentence from active voice to passive voice, the subject is replaced with the object and vice versa. Given in the table below are the subject-object replacements of pronouns.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में  बदलने के लिए, subject को object से बदल दिया जाता है और object को subject से। नीचे दी गई टेबल में pronoun के subject-object replacement के बारे में बताया गया है।

 

Subject Object
He Him
She Her
It It
I Me
You You
We Us
They Them

Passive Voice in Tenses

While changing a sentence from active voice into passive voice, along with the helping verb, the structure of the tenses also gets changed. The table given below describes the changes in the structure of different sentences.

किसी भी sentence को active voice से passive voice में  बदलते वक़्त, helping verb के साथ, tenses का structure भी बदल जाता है। नीचे दी गई टेबल में  tenses के structure में आये बदलाव के बारे में बताया गया है।

 

Tenses Active Voice Passive Voice
Present Indefinite Tense Subject + Verb1 + s/ es + Object

 

Example: Sheena writes an essay.

Rahul visits Mr. Dixit.

 

Object + is/ am/ are + Verb3 + by + Subject

Example: An essay is written by Sheena.

Mr. Dixit is visited by Rahul.

Past Indefinite Tense Subject + verb2 + Object

 

Example: Ahaan read the letter.

 

Astha took her mother for granted.

Object + was/ were + verb3 + by + Subject.

Example: The letter was read by Ahaan.

Her mother was taken for granted by Astha.

Future Indefinite Tense Subject + will/ shall + verb3 + object.

Example: She will organize the seminar.

Abhishek will host the party.

Object + will/ shall + be + verb3 + by + Subject.

Example: The seminar will be organized by her.

The party will be hosted by Abhishek.

Present Continuous Tense Subject + is/ am/ are + verb1 + ing + object

Example: Dheeraj is eating an ice cream.

Sheela is buying a new house.

Object + is/ am/ are + being + verb3 + by + subject.

Example: An ice cream is being  eaten by Dheeraj.

A new house is being bought by Sheela.

Past Continuous Tense Subject + was/ were + verb1 + ing + object

Example: Riya was playing badminton.

Ashu was making a cake.

Object + was/ were + being + verb3 + by + subject.

Example: Badminton was being played by Riya.

The cake was being made by Ashu.

Present Perfect Tense Subject + has/ have + verb3 + object

Example: She has worn a beautiful dress.

Ajay has drunk the whole bottle.

Object + has/ have + been + verb3 + by + subject.

Example: A beautiful dress has been worn by her.

The whole bottle has been drunk by Ajay.

Past Perfect Tense Subject + had + verb3 + object

 

Example: She had thrown a ball.

Arjun had broken the glass.

Object + had been + verb3 + by + subject.

Example: A ball had been thrown by her.

The glass had been broken by Arjun.

Future Perfect Tense Subject + will/ shall + have + verb3 + object

Example: I will have eaten the whole.

She will have called the police.

Object + will/ shall + have + been + verb3 + by + subject

Example: The whole cake will have been eaten by me.

The police will have been called by her.

Active to Passive Voice- Imperative/ Negative/ Interrogative Sentences

There is a difference in the structure of different types of sentences while changing it from active voice to passive voice. These changes in the structure of different sentences are described in the table below:

Active voice को passive voice में बदलते समय कई तरह के sentences के structure में अंतर होता है। इन अलग अलग तरह के sentences के structure में ये बदलाव नीचे दी गई टेबल में दिए गए हैं:

For Imperative Sentences

Rule Active Voice Passive Voice
Rule 1 Verb1 + Object

 

Example: Open the bottle.

Read the letter

Let + object + to be + Verb + remaining sentence.

Example: Let the bottle be opened.

Let the letter be read.

Rule 2 Don’t/ Do not + Verb1 + Object

 

Example: Don’t hurt my feelings.

Don’t ask her for help.

Let + object + not be + verb3 + remaining sentence

Example: Let my feelings not be hurt.

Let her help not be asked.

Rule 3 If there is a suggestion in an active voice.

Example: Obey your parents.

 

Trust your friends.

Object + should be + verb3 + remaining sentence

Example: Your parents should be obeyed.

Your friends should be trusted.

Rule 4 Kindly/ Please + verb1 + object

 

Example: Kindly follow the instructions.

Please pass the book.

You are requested to + verb1 + object

Example: You are requested to follow the instructions.

You are requested to pass the book.

Rule 5 Intransitive verb + remaining sentence (conveying order and suggestion)

Example: Study hard.

 

Sit down.

You are advised/ ordered + remaining sentence

 

Example: You are advised to study hard.

You are ordered to sit down.

Rule 6 Let us + verb1

 

Example: Let us eat cake.

 

Let us play together.

It is suggested that + we should + verb1

 

 

 Rule 7 Let + subject + verb1 + object

 

Example: Let him complete his homework.

Let me ask him for help.

Let + object + be + verb3 + by + subject

Example: Let his homework be completed by him.

Let his help be asked by him.

For Negative Sentence

Rule Active Voice Passive Voice
Subject + helping verb + not + main verb + object

Example: Ayaan is not playing cricket.

Asad is not teaching math.

Object + helping verb + main verb3 + by + subject

Example: Cricket is not being played by Ayaan.

Math is not being taught by Asad.

 

Note: The syntax for the passive voice for the negative sentences is the same as the passive voice structure for tenses.

नोट: negative sentences के लिए passive voice में  sentence बनाने के नियम, tense के passive voice नियम एक है।

For Interrogative Sentence

Rule Active Voice Passive Voice
Rule 1 Helping verb + subject + verb + object?

Example: Do you want medicines?

 

Have you written a poem?

Helping verb + object + verb3 + by subject?

Example: Are medicines wanted by you?

Has a poem been written by you?

Rule 2 Who + helping verb + verb + object?

 

Example: Who will find my friend?

 

Who completed my homework?

By whom + helping verb + object + verb3 + remaining sentence?

Example: By whom will my purse be found?

By whom was my homework completed?

Rule 3 What + helping verb + subject + verb + object?

Example: What did you eat?

What is he saying?

What + helping verb + object + verb3 + by + subject?

Example: What was eaten by you?

What is being said by him?

Rule4 whom, whose, which, how many and how much + remaining sentence?

 

 

 By + whom, whose, which, how many and how much + remaining sentence?

 

Example: Who was called by you?

How many pastries will be eaten by you?

Where Not to Use Active and Passive Voice

  1. While changing any sentence from active to passive voice, the following four tenses do not get converted.

किसी भी sentence को active से passive voice में बदलते समय, निम्नलिखित चार tenses को नहीं बदला जा सकता हैं।

  • Future Continuous Tense (Subject + will/ shall be + verb + ing + object)
  • Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Subject + has been/ have been + verb 1 ing + object + since/ for + time)
  • Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Subject + had been + verb1 + ing + object + for/ since + time)
  • Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Subject + will/ shall + have been + verb1 + ing + object + for/ from/ since + time)
  1. For those sentences in which the intransitive verb is the main verb, the passive voice is not made.

जिन sentences में main verb ही intransitive verb होती है, उन्हें passive voice में नहीं बदला जाता है.

Example: We go.

They play.

Try and Learn Easily

Given below are the sentences in the active voice, change them into passive voice.

नीचे दिए गए active voice sentences को passive voice में बदलें:

  1. Riya plays tennis.
  2. She is not eating chocolates.
  3. We sleep.
  4. Ahana had read the book.
  5. She will upload the picture.
  6. He shall give her important tips.
  7. Does Neha betray Karan?
  8. Don’t eat your nails.
  9. Kindly play the song.
  10. Let us study together.

Answers

  1. Tennis is played by Riya.
  2. Chocolates are not being eaten by her.
  3. No passive voice
  4. The book had been read by Ahana.
  5. The picture will be uploaded by her.
  6. She will be given important tips by her .
  7. Is Karan betrayed by Neha?
  8. Let your nails not be eaten.
  9. You are requested to play the song.
  10. It is suggested that we study together.

 

September 28, 2022

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